Recombinant pro-CTSD (cathepsin D) enhances SNCA/α-Synuclein degradation in α-Synucleinopathy models.

Huarcaya AP, Drobny S, Marques ARA, Di Spiezio A, Dobert J, Balta D, Werner C, Rizo Garza T, Gallwitz L, Bub S, Stojkovska I, Belur NR, Fogh J, Mazzulli JR, Xiang W, Fulzele A, Dejung M, Sauer M, Winner B, Rose-John S, Arnold P, Saftig P, Zunke F (2022)

Publication Language: English

Publication Status: Published

Publication Type: Journal article, Review article

Publication year: 2022



Book Volume: 18

Pages Range: 1127-1151

Journal Issue: 5

DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2022.2045534


Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the abnormal intracellular accumulation of SNCA/α-synuclein. While the exact mechanisms underlying SNCA pathology are not fully understood, increasing evidence suggests the involvement of autophagy as well as lysosomal deficiencies. Because CTSD (cathepsin D) has been proposed to be the major lysosomal protease involved in SNCA degradation, its deficiency has been linked to the presence of insoluble SNCA conformers in the brain of mice and humans as well as to the transcellular transmission of SNCA aggregates. We here postulate that SNCA degradation can be enhanced by the application of the recombinant human proform of CTSD (rHsCTSD). Our results reveal that rHsCTSD is efficiently endocytosed by neuronal cells, correctly targeted to lysosomes and matured to an enzymatically active protease. In dopaminergic neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) of PD patients harboring the A53T mutation within the SNCA gene, we confirm the reduction of insoluble SNCA after treatment with rHsCTSD. Moreover, we demonstrate a decrease of pathological SNCA conformers in the brain and within primary neurons of a ctsd-deficient mouse model after dosing with rHsCTSD. Boosting lysosomal CTSD activity not only enhanced SNCA clearance in human and murine neurons as well as tissue, but also restored endo-lysosome and autophagy function. Our findings indicate that CTSD is critical for SNCA clearance and function. Thus, enzyme replacement strategies utilizing CTSD may also be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of PD and other synucleinopathies aiming to decrease the SNCA burden.Abbreviations: aa: amino acid; SNCA/α-synuclein: synuclein alpha; APP: amyloid beta precursor protein; BBB: blood brain barrier; BF: basal forebrain; CBB: Coomassie Brilliant Blue; CLN: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; CNL10: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 10; Corr.: corrected; CTSD: cathepsin D; CTSB: cathepsin B; DA: dopaminergic; DA-iPSn: induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons; dox: doxycycline; ERT: enzyme replacement therapy; Fx: fornix, GBA/β-glucocerebrosidase: glucosylceramidase beta; h: hour; HC: hippocampus; HT: hypothalamus; i.c.: intracranially; IF: immunofluorescence; iPSC: induced pluripotent stem cell; KO: knockout; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LSDs: lysosomal storage disorders; MAPT: microtubule associated protein tau; M6P: mannose-6-phosphate; M6PR: mannose-6-phosphate receptor; MB: midbrain; mCTSD: mature form of CTSD; neurofil.: neurofilament; PD: Parkinson disease; proCTSD: proform of CTSD; PRNP: prion protein; RFU: relative fluorescence units; rHsCTSD: recombinant human proCTSD; SAPC: Saposin C; SIM: structured illumination microscopy; T-insol: Triton-insoluble; T-sol: Triton-soluble; TEM: transmission electron microscopy, TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; Thal: thalamus.

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Huarcaya, A.P., Drobny, S., Marques, A.R.A., Di Spiezio, A., Dobert, J., Balta, D.,... Zunke, F. (2022). Recombinant pro-CTSD (cathepsin D) enhances SNCA/α-Synuclein degradation in α-Synucleinopathy models. Autophagy, 18(5), 1127-1151.


Huarcaya, Alice Prieto, et al. "Recombinant pro-CTSD (cathepsin D) enhances SNCA/α-Synuclein degradation in α-Synucleinopathy models." Autophagy 18.5 (2022): 1127-1151.

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