Reliable Out-of-Distribution Recognition of Synthetic Images

Maier A, Rieß C (2024)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2024


Book Volume: 10

Journal Issue: 5

DOI: 10.3390/jimaging10050110

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Generative adversarial networks (GANs) and diffusion models (DMs) have revolutionized the creation of synthetically generated but realistic-looking images. Distinguishing such generated images from real camera captures is one of the key tasks in current multimedia forensics research. One particular challenge is the generalization to unseen generators or post-processing. This can be viewed as an issue of handling out-of-distribution inputs. Forensic detectors can be hardened by the extensive augmentation of the training data or specifically tailored networks. Nevertheless, such precautions only manage but do not remove the risk of prediction failures on inputs that look reasonable to an analyst but in fact are out of the training distribution of the network. With this work, we aim to close this gap with a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) that provides an additional uncertainty measure to warn an analyst of difficult decisions. More specifically, the BNN learns the task at hand and also detects potential confusion between post-processing and image generator artifacts. Our experiments show that the BNN achieves on-par performance with the state-of-the-art detectors while producing more reliable predictions on out-of-distribution examples

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How to cite


Maier, A., & Rieß, C. (2024). Reliable Out-of-Distribution Recognition of Synthetic Images. Journal of Imaging, 10(5).


Maier, Anatol, and Christian Rieß. "Reliable Out-of-Distribution Recognition of Synthetic Images." Journal of Imaging 10.5 (2024).

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