Forensic analysis of AI-compression traces in spatial and frequency domain

Bergmann S, Moussa D, Brand F, Kaup A, Rieß C (2024)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2024



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The classical JPEG compression is a rich source of cues for forensic image analysis. However, this compression standard will in the near future be complemented by a new, highly efficient learning-based compression standard called JPEG AI. JPEG AI is fundamentally different from classical JPEG. Hence, its forensic traces can also be expected to be fundamentally different. We argue that there is a pressing need for image forensics research to investigate these traces.

In this work, we characterize forensic compression traces of different AI compression algorithms. Our analysis investigates AI compression artifacts in frequency domain and in spatial domain. Both domains exhibit similar artifacts that likely stem from upsampling operations of the decoders. Additionally, we report for one AI codec another artifact in homogeneous regions. We also investigate the artifact detectability in several scenarios including unseen AI compression traces and postprocessing. Here, frequency and autocorrelation features are better on additive noise and classical JPEG post-compression, while RGB features perform better on blurred and downsampled images.

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How to cite


Bergmann, S., Moussa, D., Brand, F., Kaup, A., & Rieß, C. (2024). Forensic analysis of AI-compression traces in spatial and frequency domain. Pattern Recognition Letters.


Bergmann, Sandra, et al. "Forensic analysis of AI-compression traces in spatial and frequency domain." Pattern Recognition Letters (2024).

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