Impact of the Power-Dependent Beam Diameter during Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing: A Case Study with γ-TiAl

Reith M, Breuning C, Franke M, Körner C (2022)


Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2022

Journal

Book Volume: 12

Article Number: 11300

Journal Issue: 21

DOI: 10.3390/app122111300

Abstract

The development of process parameters for electron beam powder bed fusion (PBF-EB) is usually made with simple geometries and uniform scan lengths. The transfer to complex parts with various scan lengths can be achieved by adapting beam parameters such as beam power and scan speed. Under ideal conditions, this adaption results in a constant energy input into the powder bed despite of the local scan length. However, numerous PBF-EB machines show deviations from the ideal situation because the beam diameter is subject to significant changes if the beam power is changed. This study aims to demonstrate typical scaling issues when applying process parameters to scan lengths up to 45 mm using a fourth generation γ-TiAl alloy. Line energy, area energy, return time, and lateral velocity are kept constant during the additive manufacturing process by adjusting beam power and beam velocity to various scan lengths. Samples produced in this way are examined by light microscopy regarding lateral melt pool extension, melt pool depth, porosity, and microstructure. The process-induced aluminum evaporation is measured by electron probe microanalysis. The experiments reveal undesired changes in melt pool geometry, gas porosity, and aluminum evaporation by increasing the beam power. In detail, beam widening is identified as the reason for the change in melt pool dimensions and microstructure. This finding is supported by numerical calculations from a semi-analytic heat conduction model. This study demonstrates that in-depth knowledge of the electron beam diameter is required to thoroughly control the PBF-EB process, especially when scaling process parameters from simply shaped geometries to complex parts with various scan lengths.

Authors with CRIS profile

Involved external institutions

How to cite

APA:

Reith, M., Breuning, C., Franke, M., & Körner, C. (2022). Impact of the Power-Dependent Beam Diameter during Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing: A Case Study with γ-TiAl. Applied Sciences, 12(21). https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/app122111300

MLA:

Reith, Marcel, et al. "Impact of the Power-Dependent Beam Diameter during Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing: A Case Study with γ-TiAl." Applied Sciences 12.21 (2022).

BibTeX: Download