Gout, hyperuricaemia and crystal-associated disease network (G-CAN) consensus statement regarding labels and definitions of disease states of gout

Bursill D, Taylor WJ, Terkeltaub R, Abhishek A, So AK, Vargas-Santos AB, Gaffo AL, Rosenthal A, Tausche AK, Reginato A, Manger B, Sciré C, Pineda C, Van Durme C, Lin CT, Yin C, Albert DA, Biernat-Kaluza E, Roddy E, Pascual E, Becce F, Perez-Ruiz F, Sivera F, Lioté F, Schett G, Nuki G, Filippou G, McCarthy G, Da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro G, Ea HK, Tupinambá HDA, Yamanaka H, Choi HK, MacKay J, Odell JR, Vázquez Mellado J, Singh JA, Fitzgerald JD, Jacobsson LT, Joosten L, Harrold LR, Stamp L, Andrés M, Gutierrez M, Kuwabara M, Dehlin M, Janssen M, Doherty M, Hershfield MS, Pillinger M, Edwards NL, Schlesinger N, Kumar N, Slot O, Ottaviani S, Richette P, MacMullan PA, Chapman PT, Lipsky PE, Robinson P, Khanna PP, Gancheva RN, Grainger R, Johnson RJ, Te Kampe R, Keenan RT, Tedeschi SK, Kim S, Choi SJ, Fields TR, Bardin T, Uhlig T, Jansen T, Merriman T, Pascart T, Neogi T, Klück V, Louthrenoo W, Dalbeth N (2019)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2019


DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215933


Objective: There is a lack of standardisation in the terminology used to describe gout. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus statement describing the recommended nomenclature for disease states of gout. Methods: A content analysis of gout-related articles from rheumatology and general internal medicine journals published over a 5-year period identified potential disease states and the labels commonly assigned to them. Based on these findings, experts in gout were invited to participate in a Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting to reach agreement on disease state labels and definitions. Results: The content analysis identified 13 unique disease states and a total of 63 unique labels. The Delphi exercise (n=76 respondents) and face-to-face meeting (n=35 attendees) established consensus agreement for eight disease state labels and definitions. The agreed labels were as follows: 'asymptomatic hyperuricaemia', ' asymptomatic monosodium urate crystal deposition', ' asymptomatic hyperuricaemia with monosodium urate crystal deposition', ' gout', ' tophaceous gout', ' erosive gout', ' first gout flare' and ' recurrent gout flares'. There was consensus agreement that the label ' gout' should be restricted to current or prior clinically evident disease caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition (gout flare, chronic gouty arthritis or subcutaneous tophus). Conclusion: Consensus agreement has been established for the labels and definitions of eight gout disease states, including ' gout' itself. The Gout, Hyperuricaemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network recommends the use of these labels when describing disease states of gout in research and clinical practice.

Authors with CRIS profile

Involved external institutions

Hôpital Bichat-Claude-Bernard (CHU, APHP) FR France (FR) Duke University Medical Center US United States (USA) (US) Canterbury District Health Board NZ New Zealand (NZ) University of Otago NZ New Zealand (NZ) University of Adelaide AU Australia (AU) University of Nottingham GB United Kingdom (GB) Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra (INR) MX Mexico (MX) Hospital General Universitario de Elda ES Spain (ES) OncoSec US United States (USA) (US) Massachusetts General Hospital US United States (USA) (US) Mater Misericordiae University Hospital (MMUH) / Ospidéal an Mater Misercordiae IE Ireland (IE) University of Keele GB United Kingdom (GB) University of Edinburgh GB United Kingdom (GB) Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre / Radboudumc of voluit Radboud Universitair Medisch Centrum (UMC) NL Netherlands (NL) Università degli Studi di Ferrara IT Italy (IT) Tokyo Women's Medical University JP Japan (JP) University of Colorado System US United States (USA) (US) Boston Medical Center (BMC) US United States (USA) (US) Rio de Janeiro State University / Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) BR Brazil (BR) Chiang Mai University (CMU) / มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่ TH Thailand (TH) Hôpital Saint Philibert FR France (FR) Taichung Veterans General Hospital TW Taiwan (TW) VieCuri Medisch Centrum / VieCuri Medical Center NL Netherlands (NL) Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC) US United States (USA) (US) Hôpitaux Universitaires Saint-Louis, Lariboisière, Fernand-Widal FR France (FR) University Hospital St. Ivan Rilski BG Bulgaria (BG) Duke University US United States (USA) (US) University of Paris 11 - Paris-Sud / Université Paris XI Paris-Sud FR France (FR) University of Gothenburg / Göteborgs universitet SE Sweden (SE) Université de Lausanne (UNIL) CH Switzerland (CH) Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) US United States (USA) (US) Osakidetza ES Spain (ES) Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) US United States (USA) (US) Rigshospitalet DK Denmark (DK) University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus US United States (USA) (US) University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) US United States (USA) (US) AMPEL BioSolutions, LLC US United States (USA) (US) University of Massachusetts Medical School US United States (USA) (US) Diakonhjemmet Hospital NO Norway (NO) Hospital General Universitario de Alicante ES Spain (ES) Centralny Szpital Kliniczny Wojskowej Akademii Medycznej z Polikliniką SP PL Poland (PL) University of Auckland NZ New Zealand (NZ) University of Michigan US United States (USA) (US) University of Calgary CA Canada (CA) University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) US United States (USA) (US) National Autonomous University of Mexico / Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) MX Mexico (MX) New York University (NYU) US United States (USA) (US) Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) US United States (USA) (US) Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden DE Germany (DE) University of California, San Diego US United States (USA) (US) University of Queensland AU Australia (AU) Korea University KR Korea, Republic of (KR) Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey US United States (USA) (US) Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) US United States (USA) (US) University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) US United States (USA) (US) Maastricht University NL Netherlands (NL) Brown University US United States (USA) (US) University of Florida US United States (USA) (US)

How to cite


Bursill, D., Taylor, W.J., Terkeltaub, R., Abhishek, A., So, A.K., Vargas-Santos, A.B.,... Dalbeth, N. (2019). Gout, hyperuricaemia and crystal-associated disease network (G-CAN) consensus statement regarding labels and definitions of disease states of gout. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215933


Bursill, David, et al. "Gout, hyperuricaemia and crystal-associated disease network (G-CAN) consensus statement regarding labels and definitions of disease states of gout." Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2019).

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