A machine learning pipeline for internal anatomical landmark embedding based on a patient surface model

Zhong X, Strobel N, Birkhold A, Kowarschik M, Fahrig R, Maier A (2019)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2019


Book Volume: 14

Pages Range: 53--61

Journal Issue: 1

URI: https://www5.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/Forschung/Publikationen/2018/Zhong18-AML.pdf

DOI: 10.1007/s11548-018-1871-y


Purpose With the recent introduction of fully assisting scanner technologies by Siemens Healthineers (Erlangen, Germany), a patient surface model was introduced to the diagnostic imaging device market. Such a patient representation can be used to automate and accelerate the clinical imaging workflow, manage patient dose, and provide navigation assistance for computed tomography diagnostic imaging. In addition to diagnostic imaging, a patient surface model has also tremendous potential to simplify interventional imaging. For example, if the anatomy of a patient was known, a robotic angiography system could be automatically positioned such that the organ of interest is positioned in the system’s iso-center offering a good and flexible view on the underlying patient anatomy quickly and without any additional X-ray dose. Method To enable such functionality in a clinical context with sufficiently high accuracy, we present an extension of our previous patient surface model by adding internal anatomical landmarks associated with certain (main) bones of the human skeleton, in particular the spine. We also investigate different approaches to positioning of these landmarks employing CT datasets with annotated internal landmarks as training data. The general pipeline of our proposed method comprises the following steps: First, we train an active shape model using an existing avatar database and segmented CT surfaces. This stage also includes a gravity correction procedure, which accounts for shape changes due to the fact that the avatar models were obtained in standing position, while the CT data were acquired with patients in supine position. Second, we match the gravity-corrected avatar patient surface models to surfaces segmented from the CT datasets. In the last step, we derive the spatial relationships between the patient surface model and internal anatomical landmarks. Result We trained and evaluated our method using cross-validation using 20 datasets, each containing 50 internal landmarks. We further compared the performance of four different generalized linear models’ setups to describe the positioning of the internal landmarks relative to the patient surface. The best mean estimation error over all the landmarks was achieved using lasso regression with a mean error of 12.19 ± 6.98 mm. Conclusion Considering that interventional X-ray imaging systems can have detectors covering an area of about 200 mm × 266 mm (20 cm × 27 cm) at iso-center, this accuracy is sufficient to facilitate automatic positioning of the X-ray system

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Zhong, X., Strobel, N., Birkhold, A., Kowarschik, M., Fahrig, R., & Maier, A. (2019). A machine learning pipeline for internal anatomical landmark embedding based on a patient surface model. International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 14(1), 53--61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11548-018-1871-y


Zhong, Xia, et al. "A machine learning pipeline for internal anatomical landmark embedding based on a patient surface model." International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 14.1 (2019): 53--61.

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