Correction of beam hardening in X-ray radiograms

Journal article

Publication Details

Author(s): Baur M, Uhlmann N, Pöschel T, Schröter M
Journal: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication year: 2019
Volume: 90
Journal issue: 2
ISSN: 0034-6748
eISSN: 1089-7623


The intensity of a monochromatic X-ray beam decreases exponentially with the distance it has traveled inside a material; this behavior is commonly referred to as Beer-Lambert's law. Knowledge of the material-specific attenuation coefficient mu allows us to determine the thickness of a sample from the intensity decrease the beam has experienced. However, classical X-ray tubes emit a polychromatic bremsstrahlung-spectrum. And the attenuation coefficients of all materials depend on the photon energy: photons with high energy are attenuated less than photons with low energy. In consequence, the X-ray spectrum changes while traveling through the medium; due to the relative increase in high energy photons, this effect is called beam hardening. For this varying spectrum, the Beer-Lambert law only remains valid if mu is replaced by an effective attenuation coefficient mu(eff) which depends not only on the material but also on its thickness x and the details of the X-ray setup used. We present here a way to deduce mu(eff)(x) from a small number of auxiliary measurements using a phenomenological model. This model can then be used to determine an unknown material thickness or in the case of a granular media its volume fraction. Published under license by AIP Publishing.

FAU Authors / FAU Editors

Baur, Manuel
Lehrstuhl für Multiscale Simulation of Particulate Systems
Pöschel, Thorsten Prof. Dr.
Lehrstuhl für Multiscale Simulation of Particulate Systems
Schröter, Matthias Dr.
Lehrstuhl für Multiscale Simulation of Particulate Systems

External institutions with authors

Fraunhofer-Institut für Integrierte Schaltungen (IIS)

How to cite

Baur, M., Uhlmann, N., Pöschel, T., & Schröter, M. (2019). Correction of beam hardening in X-ray radiograms. Review of Scientific Instruments, 90(2).

Baur, Manuel, et al. "Correction of beam hardening in X-ray radiograms." Review of Scientific Instruments 90.2 (2019).


Last updated on 2019-22-03 at 01:08