Chromatic visual evoked potentials: A review of physiology, methods and clinical applications

Marmoy OR, Tekavčič Pompe M, Kremers J (2024)

Publication Type: Journal article, Review article

Publication year: 2024


Book Volume: 101

Article Number: 101272

DOI: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2024.101272


Objective assessment of the visual system can be performed electrophysiologically using the visual evoked potential (VEP). In many clinical circumstances, this is performed using high contrast achromatic patterns or diffuse flash stimuli. These methods are clinically valuable but they may only assess a subset of possible physiological circuitries within the visual system, particularly those involved in achromatic (luminance) processing. The use of chromatic VEPs (cVEPs) in addition to standard VEPs can inform us of the function or dysfunction of chromatic pathways. The chromatic VEP has been well studied in human health and disease. Yet, to date our knowledge of their underlying mechanisms and applications remains limited. This likely reflects a heterogeneity in the methodology, analysis and conclusions of different works, which leads to ambiguity in their clinical use. This review sought to identify the primary methodologies employed for recording cVEPs. Furthermore cVEP maturation and application in understanding the function of the chromatic system under healthy and diseased conditions are reviewed. We first briefly describe the physiology of normal colour vision, before describing the methodologies and historical developments which have led to our understanding of cVEPs. We thereafter describe the expected maturation of the cVEP, followed by reviewing their application in several disorders: congenital colour vision deficiencies, retinal disease, glaucoma, optic nerve and neurological disorders, diabetes, amblyopia and dyslexia. We finalise the review with recommendations for testing and future directions.

Authors with CRIS profile

Involved external institutions

How to cite


Marmoy, O.R., Tekavčič Pompe, M., & Kremers, J. (2024). Chromatic visual evoked potentials: A review of physiology, methods and clinical applications. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 101.


Marmoy, Oliver R., Manca Tekavčič Pompe, and Jan Kremers. "Chromatic visual evoked potentials: A review of physiology, methods and clinical applications." Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 101 (2024).

BibTeX: Download