Investigating the Impact of AI on Shared Decision-Making in Post-Kidney Transplant Care (PRIMA-AI): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

Osmanodja B, Sassi Z, Eickmann S, Hansen CM, Roller R, Burchardt A, Samhammer D, Dabrock P, Möller S, Budde K, Herrmann A (2024)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2024


Book Volume: 13

Article Number: e54857

Journal Issue: 1

DOI: 10.2196/54857


Background: Patients after kidney transplantation eventually face the risk of graft loss with the concomitant need for dialysis or retransplantation. Choosing the right kidney replacement therapy after graft loss is an important preference-sensitive decision for kidney transplant recipients. However, the rate of conversations about treatment options after kidney graft loss has been shown to be as low as 13% in previous studies. It is unknown whether the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI)–based risk prediction models can increase the number of conversations about treatment options after graft loss and how this might influence the associated shared decision-making (SDM). Objective: This study aims to explore the impact of AI-based risk prediction for the risk of graft loss on the frequency of conversations about the treatment options after graft loss, as well as the associated SDM process. Methods: This is a 2-year, prospective, randomized, 2-armed, parallel-group, single-center trial in a German kidney transplant center. All patients will receive the same routine post–kidney transplant care that usually includes follow-up visits every 3 months at the kidney transplant center. For patients in the intervention arm, physicians will be assisted by a validated and previously published AI-based risk prediction system that estimates the risk for graft loss in the next year, starting from 3 months after randomization until 24 months after randomization. The study population will consist of 122 kidney transplant recipients >12 months after transplantation, who are at least 18 years of age, are able to communicate in German, and have an estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients with multi-organ transplantation, or who are not able to communicate in German, as well as underage patients, cannot participate. For the primary end point, the proportion of patients who have had a conversation about their treatment options after graft loss is compared at 12 months after randomization. Additionally, 2 different assessment tools for SDM, the CollaboRATE mean score and the Control Preference Scale, are compared between the 2 groups at 12 months and 24 months after randomization. Furthermore, recordings of patient-physician conversations, as well as semistructured interviews with patients, support persons, and physicians, are performed to support the quantitative results. Results: The enrollment for the study is ongoing. The first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2025. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the influence of AI-based risk prediction on physician-patient interaction in the context of kidney transplantation. We use a mixed methods approach by combining a randomized design with a simple quantitative end point (frequency of conversations), different quantitative measurements for SDM, and several qualitative research methods (eg, records of physician-patient conversations and semistructured interviews) to examine the implementation of AI-based risk prediction in the clinic. Trial Registration: NCT06056518; International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/54857.

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Osmanodja, B., Sassi, Z., Eickmann, S., Hansen, C.M., Roller, R., Burchardt, A.,... Herrmann, A. (2024). Investigating the Impact of AI on Shared Decision-Making in Post-Kidney Transplant Care (PRIMA-AI): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 13(1).


Osmanodja, Bilgin, et al. "Investigating the Impact of AI on Shared Decision-Making in Post-Kidney Transplant Care (PRIMA-AI): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial." JMIR Research Protocols 13.1 (2024).

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