Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms

Lamberti G, Panzuto F, Pavel ME, O’Toole D, Ambrosini V, Falconi M, Garcia-Carbonero R, Riechelmann RP, Rindi G, Campana D (2024)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2024


Book Volume: 10

Article Number: 25

Journal Issue: 1

DOI: 10.1038/s41572-024-00508-y


Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (gNENs) display peculiar site-specific features among all NENs. Their incidence and prevalence have been rising in the past few decades. gNENs comprise gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (gNECs) and gastric neuroendocrine tumours (gNETs), the latter further classified into three types. Type I anatype II gNETs are gastrin-dependent and develop in chronic atrophic gastritis and as part of Zollinger–Ellison syndrome within a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1), respectively. Type III or sporadic gNETs develop in the absence of hypergastrinaemia and in the context of a near-normal or inflamed gastric mucosa. gNECs can also develop in the context of variable atrophic, relatively normal or inflamed gastric mucosa. Each gNEN type has different clinical characteristics and requires a different multidisciplinary approach in expert dedicated centres. Type I gNETs are managed mainly by endoscopy or surgery, whereas the treatment of type II gNETs largely depends on the management of the concomitant MEN1. Type III gNETs may require both locoregional approaches and systemic treatments; NECs are often metastatic and therefore require systemic treatment. Specific data regarding the systemic treatment of gNENs are lacking and are derived from the treatment of intestinal NETs and NECs. An enhanced understanding of molecular and clinical pathophysiology is needed to improve the management and outcomes of patients’ gNETs.

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Lamberti, G., Panzuto, F., Pavel, M.E., O’Toole, D., Ambrosini, V., Falconi, M.,... Campana, D. (2024). Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 10(1).


Lamberti, Giuseppe, et al. "Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms." Nature Reviews Disease Primers 10.1 (2024).

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