The core of secondary level quantum education: a multi-stakeholder perspective

Bitzenbauer P, Merzel A, Krijtenburg-Lewerissa K, Stadermann K, Andreotti E, Anttila D, Bondani M, Chiofalo ML, Faletič S, Frans R, Goorney S, Greinert F, Jurčić L, Koupilová Z, Malgieri M, Müller R, Onorato P, Pospiech G, Ubben M, Woitzik A, Pol H (2024)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2024


Book Volume: 11

Article Number: 27

DOI: 10.1140/epjqt/s40507-024-00237-x

Open Access Link:


Quantum physics (QP) education at the secondary school level is still in its infancy. Not only is there ongoing discussion about how to teach this subject, but there is also a lack of coherence in the selection of concepts to be taught, both across countries and over time. To contribute to this discussion, we investigated the perspectives of N=39" role="presentation"> high school teachers, university-level physics educators, and physics education researchers regarding the essential concepts in QP and the corresponding illustrations that should be introduced at the secondary school level. We examined the prominence of different key concepts and illustrations, as well as the level of consensus among the various professional groups. Our analysis revealed that certain key concepts are universally valued across all professional groups, while others are specific to particular groups. Additionally, we explored the relationships between these key concepts and their corresponding illustrations. Overall, our study offers valuable insights into the perspectives of different stakeholders, emphasizing the essential concepts and visualizations that should be considered when designing and implementing the teaching of QP at the secondary school level.

Authors with CRIS profile

Involved external institutions

How to cite


Bitzenbauer, P., Merzel, A., Krijtenburg-Lewerissa, K., Stadermann, K., Andreotti, E., Anttila, D.,... Pol, H. (2024). The core of secondary level quantum education: a multi-stakeholder perspective. EPJ Quantum Technology, 11.


Bitzenbauer, Philipp, et al. "The core of secondary level quantum education: a multi-stakeholder perspective." EPJ Quantum Technology 11 (2024).

BibTeX: Download