Judging under Public Pressure

Cohen A, Neeman Z, Auferoth F (2024)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2024


Book Volume: 106

Pages Range: 151-166

Journal Issue: 1

DOI: 10.1162/rest_a_01141


We study the circumstances under which public pressure affects judging. We show that crowd pressure biases decisions in favor of the crowd for “subjective decisions” with respect to which the judge has more discretion but not for “objective decisions.” The bias is strengthened after a judge’s error against the crowd and when errors are costlier to the crowd. We use data about referees’ decisions and errors from the Bundesliga. We exploit three regimes where, due to the introduction of Video Assistance Refereeing (VAR) and COVID-19, both crowd pressure and the likelihood of errors vary.

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Cohen, A., Neeman, Z., & Auferoth, F. (2024). Judging under Public Pressure. Review of Economics and Statistics, 106(1), 151-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.1162/rest_a_01141


Cohen, Alma, Zvika Neeman, and Florian Auferoth. "Judging under Public Pressure." Review of Economics and Statistics 106.1 (2024): 151-166.

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