Comparing open-source DEM frameworks for simulations of common bulk processes

Dosta M, Andre D, Angelidakis V, Caulk RA, Celigueta MA, Chareyre B, Dietiker JF, Girardot J, Govender N, Hubert C, Kobyłka R, Moura AF, Skorych V, Weatherley DK, Weinhart T (2024)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2024


Book Volume: 296

Article Number: 109066

DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2023.109066


Multiple software frameworks based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) are available for simulating granular materials. All of them employ the same principles of explicit time integration, with each time step consisting of three main steps: contact detection, calculation of interactions, and integration of the equations of motion. However, there exist significant algorithmic differences, such as the choice of contact models, particle and wall shapes, and data analysis methods. Further differences can be observed in the practical implementation, including data structures, architecture, parallelization and domain decomposition techniques, user interaction, and the documentation of resources. This study compares, verifies, and benchmarks nine widely-used software frameworks. Only open-source packages were considered, as these are freely available and their underlying algorithms can be reviewed, edited, and tested. The benchmark consists of three common bulk processes: silo emptying, drum mixing, and particle impact. To keep it simple and comparable, only standard features were used, such as spherical particles and the Hertz-Mindlin model for dry contacts. Scripts for running the benchmarks in each software are provided as a dataset.

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How to cite


Dosta, M., Andre, D., Angelidakis, V., Caulk, R.A., Celigueta, M.A., Chareyre, B.,... Weinhart, T. (2024). Comparing open-source DEM frameworks for simulations of common bulk processes. Computer Physics Communications, 296.


Dosta, M., et al. "Comparing open-source DEM frameworks for simulations of common bulk processes." Computer Physics Communications 296 (2024).

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