Deep learning-based identification of eyes at risk for glaucoma surgery

Wang R, Bradley C, Herbert P, Hou K, Ramulu P, Breininger K, Unberath M, Yohannan J (2024)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2024


Book Volume: 14

Article Number: 599

Journal Issue: 1

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-50597-0


To develop and evaluate the performance of a deep learning model (DLM) that predicts eyes at high risk of surgical intervention for uncontrolled glaucoma based on multimodal data from an initial ophthalmology visit. Longitudinal, observational, retrospective study. 4898 unique eyes from 4038 adult glaucoma or glaucoma-suspect patients who underwent surgery for uncontrolled glaucoma (trabeculectomy, tube shunt, xen, or diode surgery) between 2013 and 2021, or did not undergo glaucoma surgery but had 3 or more ophthalmology visits. We constructed a DLM to predict the occurrence of glaucoma surgery within various time horizons from a baseline visit. Model inputs included spatially oriented visual field (VF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) data as well as clinical and demographic features. Separate DLMs with the same architecture were trained to predict the occurrence of surgery within 3 months, within 3–6 months, within 6 months–1 year, within 1–2 years, within 2–3 years, within 3–4 years, and within 4–5 years from the baseline visit. Included eyes were randomly split into 60%, 20%, and 20% for training, validation, and testing. DLM performance was measured using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and precision-recall curve (PRC). Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) were utilized to assess the importance of different features. Model prediction of surgery for uncontrolled glaucoma within 3 months had the best AUC of 0.92 (95% CI 0.88, 0.96). DLMs achieved clinically useful AUC values (> 0.8) for all models that predicted the occurrence of surgery within 3 years. According to SHAP analysis, all 7 models placed intraocular pressure (IOP) within the five most important features in predicting the occurrence of glaucoma surgery. Mean deviation (MD) and average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were listed among the top 5 most important features by 6 of the 7 models. DLMs can successfully identify eyes requiring surgery for uncontrolled glaucoma within specific time horizons. Predictive performance decreases as the time horizon for forecasting surgery increases. Implementing prediction models in a clinical setting may help identify patients that should be referred to a glaucoma specialist for surgical evaluation.

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Wang, R., Bradley, C., Herbert, P., Hou, K., Ramulu, P., Breininger, K.,... Yohannan, J. (2024). Deep learning-based identification of eyes at risk for glaucoma surgery. Scientific Reports, 14(1).


Wang, Ruolin, et al. "Deep learning-based identification of eyes at risk for glaucoma surgery." Scientific Reports 14.1 (2024).

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