Efficient Annotation of Medieval Charters

Nicolaou A, Luger D, Decker F, Renet N, Christlein V, Vogeler G (2023)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Conference contribution

Publication year: 2023


Publisher: Springer

Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Book Volume: 14193

Pages Range: 284-295

Conference Proceedings Title: Document Analysis and Recognition – ICDAR 2023 Workshops.

Event location: San José, CA, USA

ISBN: 9783031414978

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-41498-5_20


Diplomatics, the analysis of medieval charters, is a major field of research in which paleography is applied. Annotating data, if performed by laymen, needs validation and correction by experts. In this paper, we propose an effective and efficient annotation approach for charter segmentation, essentially reducing it to object detection. This approach allows for a much more efficient use of the paleographer’s time and produces results that can compete and even outperform pixel-level segmentation in some use cases. Further experiments shed light on how to design a class ontology in order to make the best use of annotators’ time and effort. Exploiting the presence of calibration cards in the image, we further annotate the data with the physical length in pixels and train regression neural networks to predict it from image patches.

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Nicolaou, A., Luger, D., Decker, F., Renet, N., Christlein, V., & Vogeler, G. (2023). Efficient Annotation of Medieval Charters. In Mickael Coustaty, Alicia Fornés (Eds.), Document Analysis and Recognition – ICDAR 2023 Workshops. (pp. 284-295). San José, CA, USA: Springer.


Nicolaou, Anguelos, et al. "Efficient Annotation of Medieval Charters." Proceedings of the International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, San José, CA, USA Ed. Mickael Coustaty, Alicia Fornés, Springer, 2023. 284-295.

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