Development of the Perceived Physical Literacy Questionnaire (PPLQ) for the adult population

Holler P, Carl J, van Poppel M, Jaunig J (2023)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2023


Book Volume: 21

Pages Range: 424-433

Journal Issue: 4

DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2023.09.003


Background/objective: In physical literacy (PL) research, instruments for the adult population covering all relevant domians are currently lacking in German language. Therefore, the Perceived Physical Literacy Questionnaire (PPLQ) was developed as an assessment instrument of PL for the adult population. The purpose of this study is to describe the multistage development process leading to the aim to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PPLQ.

Methods: Based on established questionnaires (subscales) operationalizing the six defined PL domains (motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge, understanding, and physical activity behavior), we generated a large item pool. Exploratory analyses on survey data (n = 506), compelemented through an expert panel, served to identify the best fitting items. Cognitive interviews (n = 7) and a language certification process (level A2) helped to enhance the content validity of the items. Finally, we assessed the hypothesized factor structure of the PPLQ and its convergent validity with the Physical Activity-related Health Competence (PAHCO) questionnaire in a second independent sample.

Results: Valid data of 417 adults (66% women, 48 ± 16 years) entered the confirmatory factor analysis. We found empirical support for a theory-compatible 24-item version, after reducing complexity (i.e., domain subscales). Additionally, the six domains could be subsumed under an overall factor for PL (χ2 247 = 450.70, χ2/df = 1.82, CFIRobust = 0.895, RMSEARobust = 0.074 [CI90 = 0.063–0.085], SRMR = 0.064). Factor loadings, composite reliability, and discriminant validity were sufficient, while acceptable convergent validity was achieved for the total PL score and three domains.

Conclusion: The 24-item version of the PPLQ is appropriate for assessing PL among adults. However, some items (especially in the knowledge domain) can benefit from refinement in further studies.

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Holler, P., Carl, J., van Poppel, M., & Jaunig, J. (2023). Development of the Perceived Physical Literacy Questionnaire (PPLQ) for the adult population. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 21(4), 424-433.


Holler, Peter, et al. "Development of the Perceived Physical Literacy Questionnaire (PPLQ) for the adult population." Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness 21.4 (2023): 424-433.

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