Aqueous Calcium Phosphate Cement Inks for 3D Printing

Weichhold J, Pfeiffle M, Kade JC, Hurle K, Gbureck U (2023)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2023


DOI: 10.1002/adem.202300789


Mimicking the native properties and architecture of natural bone is a remaining challenge within the field of regenerative medicine. Due to the chemical similarity of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) to bone mineral, these cements are well studied as potential bone replacement material. Nevertheless, the processing and handling of CPCs into prefabricated pastes with adequate properties for 3D printing has drawbacks due to slow reaction times, limited design freedom, as well as fabrication issues such as filter pressing during ejection through thin nozzles. Herein, an aqueous cement paste containing α-tricalcium phosphate powder is proposed, which is stabilized by sodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7·10H2O) as additive. Since high powder loadings within pastes can result in filter pressing during extrusion, various concentrations and molecular weights of hyaluronic acid (HyAc) are added to the cement paste, resulting in reduced filter pressing during 3D extrusion-based printing. These cement pastes are investigated regarding their setting reaction after activation with orthophosphate solution by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction, as well as their hardening performance using Imeter measurements, while the processability is assessed by extrusion through 1.2 and 0.8 mm cannulas. The 3D-printed structures with appropriate HyAc molecular weight and concentration demonstrate suitable mechanical properties and resolution for clinical application.

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Weichhold, J., Pfeiffle, M., Kade, J.C., Hurle, K., & Gbureck, U. (2023). Aqueous Calcium Phosphate Cement Inks for 3D Printing. Advanced Engineering Materials.


Weichhold, Jan, et al. "Aqueous Calcium Phosphate Cement Inks for 3D Printing." Advanced Engineering Materials (2023).

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