Inhalation and dermal exposure to biocidal products during foam and spray applications

Schäferhenrich A, Blümlein K, Koch W, Hahn S, Schwarz K, Poppek U, Hebisch R, Schlüter U, Krug M, Göen T (2023)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2023


Book Volume: 67

Pages Range: 858-875

Journal Issue: 7

DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxad037


OBJECTIVES: Foaming and spraying are common application techniques for biocidal products. In the past, inhalation and dermal exposure during spraying have been investigated extensively. Currently, however, no exposure data are available for foaming, hindering a reliable risk assessment for foam applications of biocidal products. The focus of this project was the quantification of inhalation and potential dermal exposure to non-volatile active substances during the foam application of biocidal products in occupational settings. In some settings, exposure during spray application was measured for comparative purposes. METHODS: The inhalation and dermal exposure of operators were investigated during the application of benzalkonium chlorides and pyrethroids by foaming and spraying, considering both small- and large-scale application devices. Inhalation exposure was measured by personal air sampling; potential dermal exposure was measured using coveralls and gloves. RESULTS: Potential dermal exposure was substantially higher than inhalation exposure. Changing from spraying to foaming reduced inhalation exposure to airborne non-volatile active substances, but had no relevant effect on potential dermal exposure. However, for potential dermal exposure, considerable differences were observed between the application device categories. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study presents the first comparative exposure data for the foam and spray application of biocidal products in occupational settings with detailed contextual information. The results indicate a reduction of inhalation exposure with foam application compared to spray application. However, special attention is necessary for dermal exposure, which is not reduced by this intervention.

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Schäferhenrich, A., Blümlein, K., Koch, W., Hahn, S., Schwarz, K., Poppek, U.,... Göen, T. (2023). Inhalation and dermal exposure to biocidal products during foam and spray applications. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 67(7), 858-875.


Schäferhenrich, Anja, et al. "Inhalation and dermal exposure to biocidal products during foam and spray applications." Annals of Work Exposures and Health 67.7 (2023): 858-875.

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