Aerosol formation during foam application of non-volatile biocidal substances

Schwarz K, Blümlein K, Göen T, Hahn S, Hebisch R, Koch W, Poppek U, Schäferhenrich A, Schlüter U, Krug M (2023)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2023


Book Volume: 67

Pages Range: 731-743

Journal Issue: 6

DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxad031


The application of biocidal products by foam is considered an alternative to droplet spraying when disinfecting surfaces or fighting infestations. Inhalation exposure to aerosols containing the biocidal substances cannot be ruled out during foaming. In contrast to droplet spraying, very little is known about aerosol source strength during foaming. In this study, the formation of inhalable aerosols was quantified according to the aerosol release fractions of the active substance. The aerosol release fraction is defined as the mass of active substance transferred into inhalable airborne particles during foaming, normalised to the total amount of active substance released through the foam nozzle. Aerosol release fractions were measured in control chamber experiments where common foaming technologies were operated according to their typical conditions of use. These investigations include foams generated mechanically by actively mixing air with a foaming liquid as well as systems that use a blowing agent for foam formation. The values of the aerosol release fraction ranged from 3.4 × 10-6 to 5.7 × 10-3 (average values). For foaming processes based on mixing air and the foaming liquid, the release fractions could be correlated to the process and foam parameters such as foam exit velocity, nozzle dimensions, and foam expansion ratio.

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Schwarz, K., Blümlein, K., Göen, T., Hahn, S., Hebisch, R., Koch, W.,... Krug, M. (2023). Aerosol formation during foam application of non-volatile biocidal substances. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 67(6), 731-743.


Schwarz, Katharina, et al. "Aerosol formation during foam application of non-volatile biocidal substances." Annals of Work Exposures and Health 67.6 (2023): 731-743.

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