Experimental simulation of loop quantum gravity on a photonic chip

Van Der Meer R, Huang Z, Anguita MC, Qu D, Hooijschuur P, Liu H, Han M, Renema JJ, Cohen L (2023)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2023


Book Volume: 9

Article Number: 32

Journal Issue: 1

DOI: 10.1038/s41534-023-00702-y


The unification of general relativity and quantum theory is one of the fascinating problems of modern physics. One leading solution is Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). Simulating LQG may be important for providing predictions which can then be tested experimentally. However, such complex quantum simulations cannot run efficiently on classical computers, and quantum computers or simulators are needed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate quantum simulations of spinfoam amplitudes of LQG on an integrated photonics quantum processor. We simulate a basic transition of LQG and show that the derived spinfoam vertex amplitude falls within 4% error with respect to the theoretical prediction, despite experimental imperfections. We also discuss how to generalize the simulation for more complex transitions, in realistic experimental conditions, which will eventually lead to a quantum advantage demonstration as well as expand the toolbox to investigate LQG.

Authors with CRIS profile

Involved external institutions

How to cite


Van Der Meer, R., Huang, Z., Anguita, M.C., Qu, D., Hooijschuur, P., Liu, H.,... Cohen, L. (2023). Experimental simulation of loop quantum gravity on a photonic chip. npj Quantum Information, 9(1). https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41534-023-00702-y


Van Der Meer, Reinier, et al. "Experimental simulation of loop quantum gravity on a photonic chip." npj Quantum Information 9.1 (2023).

BibTeX: Download