Methodology and Performance Assessment of Three-Dimensional Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Simulation

Brummer A, German R, Djanatliev A (2023)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Journal article, Original article

Publication year: 2023


Book Volume: 11

Pages Range: 36349-36364

DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3264668

Open Access Link:


Packet-based simulation is a key tool for the research and development of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Over the last decade, many models throughout the communication stack have been presented, which have increased the degree of realism that can be achieved with popular simulation frameworks. Nevertheless, the three-dimensional aspects of many real-world traffic situations barely find consideration. In this paper, we present a holistic approach to simulate large-scale three-dimensional VANET scenarios. We briefly summarize our previously presented models covering different aspects of communication in 3D scenarios, including an environmental diffraction model, an n-ray ground interference model, and the consideration of multi-floor communication. We then describe the principle of a model selector, which applies the appropriate models depending on the environment of the currently transmitted packet. Subsequently, we use the outlined methodology implemented in our Veins 3D framework to simulate a large urban reference scenario. The results differ significantly from comparable 2D simulations, demonstrating the necessity of three-dimensional considerations. However, they also show strongly increased execution times. Therefore, we further suggest different approaches to improve the simulation performance. Based on these optimizations, simulation durations in the same order of magnitude as a comparable 2D simulation can be achieved.

Authors with CRIS profile

Related research project(s)

How to cite


Brummer, A., German, R., & Djanatliev, A. (2023). Methodology and Performance Assessment of Three-Dimensional Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Simulation. IEEE Access, 11, 36349-36364.


Brummer, Alexander, Reinhard German, and Anatoli Djanatliev. "Methodology and Performance Assessment of Three-Dimensional Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Simulation." IEEE Access 11 (2023): 36349-36364.

BibTeX: Download