CO2 gas hydrate as an innovative leavening agent for baked goods

Frühling Y, Claßen T, Mobarak MM, Bauer M, Zettel V, Gatternig B, Hitzmann B, Delgado A (2023)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2023


Book Volume: 7

DOI: 10.1016/j.fufo.2022.100213


In the presented research, the use and technical realization of CO2 gas hydrate (GH) as a novel baking agent is investigated. GH are ice-like structures where one mole of hydrate typically consists of about 85% water and 15% gas. Hydrates were formed in a lab-scale 1.1 L stirred tank reactor at 1-2 degrees C and 3.5 MPa, and transferred into a temperature-controlled, gas-tight measuring cell. The leavening effect of gas hydrates was assessed by measuring the CO2 release rates. Storage stability at-20 to 0 degrees C and stability above 0 degrees C were investigated experimentally and a coupled thermodynamic and kinetic decay model implemented. At-10 degrees C, gas release was highest in the first minutes and stopped completely after 5 days. After 21 days storage at-10 degrees C, the GH still contained 20 % of the initial gas content. Above 0 degrees C, dissociation rates were highly temperature dependent, and half value times ranged from 30 min (3 degrees C) to 4 min (20 -30 degrees C). Above 10 degrees C, ambient temperature had only a minor effect on the dissociation rates. Results from the kinetic decay model, applied for a 21 mm particle, showed similar dissociation behavior as a particle from experiments. Applying the model for a 3 mm particle, showed full dissociation after approximately 15 min. Stability and baking tests showed that CO2 hydrate is in principle suitable as a leavening agent. However, GH production still needs to be optimized and recipes for GH application require further development.

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Frühling, Y., Claßen, T., Mobarak, M.M., Bauer, M., Zettel, V., Gatternig, B.,... Delgado, A. (2023). CO2 gas hydrate as an innovative leavening agent for baked goods. Future Foods, 7.


Frühling, Yvonne, et al. "CO2 gas hydrate as an innovative leavening agent for baked goods." Future Foods 7 (2023).

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