Breaking the Gingival Barrier in Periodontitis

Vitkov L, Singh J, Schauer C, Minnich B, Krunic J, Oberthaler H, Gamsjaeger S, Herrmann M, Knopf J, Hannig M (2023)

Publication Type: Journal article, Review article

Publication year: 2023


Book Volume: 24

Article Number: 4544

Journal Issue: 5

DOI: 10.3390/ijms24054544


The break of the epithelial barrier of gingiva has been a subject of minor interest, albeit playing a key role in periodontal pathology, transitory bacteraemia, and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation (LGI). The significance of mechanically induced bacterial translocation in gingiva (e.g., via mastication and teeth brushing) has been disregarded despite the accumulated knowledge of mechanical force effects on tight junctions (TJs) and subsequent pathology in other epithelial tissues. Transitory bacteraemia is observed as a rule in gingival inflammation, but is rarely observed in clinically healthy gingiva. This implies that TJs of inflamed gingiva deteriorate, e.g., via a surplus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bacterial proteases, toxins, Oncostatin M (OSM), and neutrophil proteases. The inflammation-deteriorated gingival TJs rupture when exposed to physiological mechanical forces. This rupture is characterised by bacteraemia during and briefly after mastication and teeth brushing, i.e., it appears to be a dynamic process of short duration, endowed with quick repair mechanisms. In this review, we consider the bacterial, immune, and mechanical factors responsible for the increased permeability and break of the epithelial barrier of inflamed gingiva and the subsequent translocation of both viable bacteria and bacterial LPS during physiological mechanical forces, such as mastication and teeth brushing.

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Vitkov, L., Singh, J., Schauer, C., Minnich, B., Krunic, J., Oberthaler, H.,... Hannig, M. (2023). Breaking the Gingival Barrier in Periodontitis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(5).


Vitkov, Ljubomir, et al. "Breaking the Gingival Barrier in Periodontitis." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 24.5 (2023).

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