GAB1::ABL1 fusions define a distinctive soft tissue neoplasm, with variable perineurial differentiation, and a predilection for children and young adults

Agaimy A, Perret R, Demicco EG, Gross J, Liu YJ, Azmani R, Engelmann C, Schubart C, Seppet J, Stöhr R, Le Loarer F, Dickson BC (2023)


Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2023

Journal

DOI: 10.1002/gcc.23131

Abstract

Although well known as a fusion partner in hematological malignancies, fusion genes involving the ABL proto-oncogene 1 (ABL1), mapping to chromosomal region 9q34.12, have only been anecdotally reported in five soft tissue tumors. These neoplasms have been variously reported as perineurioma, angiofibroma, and solitary fibrous tumor, and all have harbored a GAB1::ABL1 gene fusion; however, the nosology and clinicopathological characteristics of soft tissue tumors carrying this rare fusion have not been delineated. We herein describe eight tumors containing the GAB1::ABL1 fusion and review previously reported cases in a series to define their morphological spectrum, address immunohistochemical evidence for a line of differentiation, with special reference to the presence or absence of a perineurial immunophenotype, and gather insight into their behavior. The patients included four females and four males, aged 13–37 years (median, 24 years). Two cases each originated in the shoulder area, trunk, hands, and lower extremities, with a size range of 1.5–8 cm (median, 3.4 cm). Four tumors were deep and four superficial. All tumors were morphologically similar, being composed of bland fibroblast-like spindle to ovoid cells diffusely arranged in a paucivascular fibrous to fibromyxoid stroma with variable resemblance to soft tissue perineurioma. Mitotic activity was generally low (0–8 mitoses in 10 high-power fields [HPFs]; median, 1). All lesions had at least focally infiltrative margins, but they otherwise lacked pleomorphism and necrosis. Immunohistochemistry showed focal reactivity for CD34 (5/7), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (3/8), claudin1 (2/3), GLUT1 (4/6), and S100 (2/7); other markers, including MUC4 (0/7), desmin (0/9), and smooth muscle actin (SMA) (0/4), were negative. RNA sequencing revealed a GAB1::ABL1 fusion in all cases with exon 6 of GAB1 fused to exon 2 of ABL1. Treatments included various forms of surgical intervention in seven cases; one tumor was biopsied only. Limited follow-up was available for five patients. One tumor regrew rapidly within 1 month to 1.5 cm after an initial marginal excision and was re-excised with close margins. Four patients were disease-free at 1, 3, 14, and 25 months of follow-up. Metastases have not, to date, been observed. This series characterizes “GAB1::ABL1 fusion-positive spindle cell neoplasm” as a distinct entity, with overlapping features with soft tissue perineurioma and predilection for children and young adults.

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APA:

Agaimy, A., Perret, R., Demicco, E.G., Gross, J., Liu, Y.J., Azmani, R.,... Dickson, B.C. (2023). GAB1::ABL1 fusions define a distinctive soft tissue neoplasm, with variable perineurial differentiation, and a predilection for children and young adults. Genes Chromosomes & Cancer. https://doi.org/10.1002/gcc.23131

MLA:

Agaimy, Abbas, et al. "GAB1::ABL1 fusions define a distinctive soft tissue neoplasm, with variable perineurial differentiation, and a predilection for children and young adults." Genes Chromosomes & Cancer (2023).

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