Comparison of refilling schemes in the free-surface lattice Boltzmann method

Schwarzmeier C, Rüde U (2022)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2022


Original Authors: Christoph Schwarzmeier, Ulrich Rüde

Book Volume: 12

Article Number: 115324

Issue: 11

DOI: 10.1063/5.0131159


Simulating mobile liquid–gas interfaces with the free-surface lattice Boltzmann method (FSLBM) requires frequent re-initialization of fluid flow information in computational cells that convert from gas to liquid. The corresponding algorithm, here referred to as the refilling scheme, is crucial for the successful application of the FSLBM in terms of accuracy and numerical stability. This study compares five refilling schemes that extract information from the surrounding liquid and interface cells by averaging, extrapolating, or assuming one of the three different equilibrium states. Six numerical experiments were performed, covering a broad spectrum of possible scenarios. These include a standing gravity wave, a rectangular and cylindrical dam break, a Taylor bubble, a drop impact into liquid, and a bubbly plane Poiseuille flow. In some simulations, the averaging, extrapolation, and one equilibrium-based scheme were numerically unstable. Overall, the results have shown that the simplest equilibrium-based scheme should be preferred in terms of numerical stability, computational cost, accuracy, and ease of implementation.

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How to cite


Schwarzmeier, C., & Rüde, U. (2022). Comparison of refilling schemes in the free-surface lattice Boltzmann method. AIP Advances, 12.


Schwarzmeier, Christoph, and Ulrich Rüde. "Comparison of refilling schemes in the free-surface lattice Boltzmann method." AIP Advances 12 (2022).

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