CODE-EHR best practice framework for the use of structured electronic healthcare records in clinical research

Kotecha D, Asselbergs FW, Achenbach S, Anker SD, Atar D, Baigent C, Banerjee A, Beger B, Brobert G, Casadei B, Ceccarelli C, Cowie MR, Crea F, Cronin M, Denaxas S, Derix A, Fitzsimons D, Fredriksson M, Gale CP, Gkoutos G, Goettsch W, Hemingway H, Ingvar M, Jonas A, Kazmierski R, Logstrup S, Lumbers RT, Luescher TF, Mcgreavy P, Pina IL, Roessig L, Steinbeisser C, Sundgren M, Tyl B, Van Thiel G, Van Bochove K, Vardas PE, Villanueva T, Vrana M, Weber W, Weidinger F, Windecker S, Wood A, Grobbe DE (2022)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2022


DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehac426


Big data is central to new developments in global clinical science aiming to improve the lives of patients. Technological advances have led to the routine use of structured electronic healthcare records with the potential to address key gaps in clinical evidence. The covid-19 pandemic has demonstrated the potential of big data and related analytics, but also important pitfalls. Verification, validation, and data privacy, as well as the social mandate to undertake research are key challenges. The European Society of Cardiology and the BigData@Heart consortium have brought together a range of international stakeholders, including patient representatives, clinicians, scientists, regulators, journal editors and industry. We propose the CODE-EHR Minimum Standards Framework as a means to improve the design of studies, enhance transparency and develop a roadmap towards more robust and effective utilisation of healthcare data for research purposes.

Authors with CRIS profile

Involved external institutions

University of Birmingham GB United Kingdom (GB) Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislauf-Forschung (DZHK e.V.) DE Germany (DE) University of Zurich / Universität Zürich (UZH) CH Switzerland (CH) British Medical Association (BMA) GB United Kingdom (GB) Royal Brompton Hospital GB United Kingdom (GB) University College London (UCL) GB United Kingdom (GB) University of Oxford GB United Kingdom (GB) Karolinska Institute SE Sweden (SE) University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust GB United Kingdom (GB) University of Leeds GB United Kingdom (GB) Hellenic Healthcare Group GR Greece (GR) Bayer AG DE Germany (DE) The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence GB United Kingdom (GB) Catholic University of the Sacred Heart / Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore IT Italy (IT) AstraZeneca UK Limited GB United Kingdom (GB) Food and Drug Administration (FDA / USFDA) US United States (USA) (US) Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern CH Switzerland (CH) Vifor Pharma AG CH Switzerland (CH) University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMC Utrecht) NL Netherlands (NL) European Heart Network (EHN) BE Belgium (BE) European Society of Cardiology BE Belgium (BE) Central Michigan University US United States (USA) (US) National Health Care Institute NL Netherlands (NL) Queen's University GB United Kingdom (GB) Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung AT Austria (AT) University of Cambridge GB United Kingdom (GB) Universiteit Utrecht (UU) / Utrecht University NL Netherlands (NL) The Hyve NL Netherlands (NL) Bayer AB SE Sweden (SE) Oslo University Hospital / Oslo Universitetssykehus Rikshospitalet NO Norway (NO) Laboratoires Servier FR France (FR)

How to cite


Kotecha, D., Asselbergs, F.W., Achenbach, S., Anker, S.D., Atar, D., Baigent, C.,... Grobbe, D.E. (2022). CODE-EHR best practice framework for the use of structured electronic healthcare records in clinical research. European Heart Journal.


Kotecha, Dipak, et al. "CODE-EHR best practice framework for the use of structured electronic healthcare records in clinical research." European Heart Journal (2022).

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