COVAD survey 2 long-term outcomes: unmet need and protocol

Fazal ZZ, Sen P, Joshi M, Ravichandran N, Lilleker JB, Agarwal V, Kardes S, Kim M, Day J, Makol A, Milchert M, Gheita T, Salim B, Velikova T, Gracia-Ramos AE, Parodis I, Nikiphorou E, Tan AL, Chatterjee T, Cavagna L, Saavedra MA, Shinjo SK, Ziade N, Selva-O'Callaghan A, Nune A, Knitza J, Kuwana M, Toro Gutierrez CE, Vinicio Caballero-Uribe C, Dey D, Distler O, Chinoy H, Agarwal V, Aggarwal R, Gupta L (2022)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2022


DOI: 10.1007/s00296-022-05157-6


Vaccine hesitancy is considered a major barrier to achieving herd immunity against COVID-19. While multiple alternative and synergistic approaches including heterologous vaccination, booster doses, and antiviral drugs have been developed, equitable vaccine uptake remains the foremost strategy to manage pandemic. Although none of the currently approved vaccines are live-attenuated, several reports of disease flares, waning protection, and acute-onset syndromes have emerged as short-term adverse events after vaccination. Hence, scientific literature falls short when discussing potential long-term effects in vulnerable cohorts. The COVAD-2 survey follows on from the baseline COVAD-1 survey with the aim to collect patient-reported data on the long-term safety and tolerability of COVID-19 vaccines in immune modulation. The e-survey has been extensively pilot-tested and validated with translations into multiple languages. Anticipated results will help improve vaccination efforts and reduce the imminent risks of COVID-19 infection, especially in understudied vulnerable groups.

Authors with CRIS profile

Involved external institutions

Aga Khan University Hospital PK Pakistan (PK) Maulana Azad Medical College (MAMC) IN India (IN) Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College & Sassoon General Hospital IN India (IN) Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS) IN India (IN) University of Manchester GB United Kingdom (GB) Mahatma Gandhi Mission Institute of Health Sciences (MGMIHS) IN India (IN) Istanbul University / İstanbul Üniversitesi TR Turkey (TR) University of Illinois College of Medicine US United States (USA) (US) Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH) AU Australia (AU) Mayo Clinic US United States (USA) (US) Pomeranian Medical University / Pomorski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Szczecinie (PMU) PL Poland (PL) Cairo University EG Egypt (EG) Fauji Foundation Hospital PK Pakistan (PK) Hl. Kliment Ochridski-Universität Sofia BG Bulgaria (BG) Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social MX Mexico (MX) Karolinska Institute SE Sweden (SE) King’s College London GB United Kingdom (GB) Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust GB United Kingdom (GB) Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS IT Italy (IT) University of São Paulo / Universidade de São Paulo (USP) BR Brazil (BR) Université Saint-Joseph (USJ) / جامعة القديس يوسف / Սուրբ Ժոզեֆի համալսարան LB Lebanon (LB) Southport and Ormskirk Hospital NHS Trust GB United Kingdom (GB) Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) / Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona ES Spain (ES) Nippon Medical School JP Japan (JP) Pontifical Xavierian University / Pontificia Universidad Javeriana CO Colombia (CO) Universidad del Norte CO Colombia (CO) University of Ghana GH Ghana (GH) University of Zurich / Universität Zürich (UZH) CH Switzerland (CH) University of Pittsburgh US United States (USA) (US)

How to cite


Fazal, Z.Z., Sen, P., Joshi, M., Ravichandran, N., Lilleker, J.B., Agarwal, V.,... Gupta, L. (2022). COVAD survey 2 long-term outcomes: unmet need and protocol. Rheumatology International.


Fazal, Zoha Zahid, et al. "COVAD survey 2 long-term outcomes: unmet need and protocol." Rheumatology International (2022).

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