Does Anti-Müllerian hormone vary during a menstrual cycle? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Khodavirdilou R, Pournaghi M, Rastgar Rezaei Y, Hajizadeh K, Khodavirdilou L, Javid F, Hamdi K, Shahnazi M, Nouri M, Fattahi A, Beckmann M, Dittrich R (2022)

Publication Type: Journal article, Review article

Publication year: 2022


Book Volume: 15

Article Number: 78

Journal Issue: 1

DOI: 10.1186/s13048-022-01006-z


Objective: Numerous studies have indicated that the level of the Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), one of the main markers for the ovarian reserve, does not fluctuate throughout a menstrual cycle, while some studies have rejected this finding. The purpose of this systematic and meta-analysis study is to consensus on all contradictory studies that have measured AMH levels throughout the menstrual cycle and to investigate the exact extent of AMH variation in a cycle. Methods: The protocol for this meta-analysis was registered at PROSPERO before data extraction. Relevant studies were identified by systematic search in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar with no limitation on publication date. Longitudinal studies which have evaluated AMH levels in the follicular and luteal phases of an unstimulated (natural) menstrual cycle in healthy women without endocrinology or ovarian disorders were included. We used the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for assessing the quality of studies found eligible for meta-analysis. Results: A total of 11 studies involving 733 women with regular menstrual cycles were included. The results showed that the AMH level in the follicular phase was significantly higher than in the luteal phase (95% Cl = 0.11 [0.01 to 0.21]; p < 0.05) and it varies about 11.5% from the luteal phase. The analysis of studies which had also examined the ovulatory phase (n = 380) showed that the serum levels of AMH in the ovulatory phase (about 2.02 ng/ml) did not significantly vary compared to follicular (95% Cl = 0.11 [-0.10 to 0.33]; p = 0.30) and luteal (95% Cl = 0.06 [-0.08 to 0.20]; p = 0.43) phases. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, AMH levels differ between follicular and luteal phases which might be due to ovarian response to the gonadotropins. It seems the phase of AMH measurement needs to be considered for interpretation of the serum AMH test.

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Khodavirdilou, R., Pournaghi, M., Rastgar Rezaei, Y., Hajizadeh, K., Khodavirdilou, L., Javid, F.,... Dittrich, R. (2022). Does Anti-Müllerian hormone vary during a menstrual cycle? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Ovarian Research , 15(1).


Khodavirdilou, Rasa, et al. "Does Anti-Müllerian hormone vary during a menstrual cycle? A systematic review and meta-analysis." Journal of Ovarian Research 15.1 (2022).

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