Immune response in COVID-19: what is next?

Li Q, Wang Y, Sun Q, Knopf J, Herrmann M, Lin L, Jiang J, Shao C, Li P, He X, Hua F, Niu Z, Ma C, Zhu Y, Ippolito G, Piacentini M, Estaquier J, Melino S, Weiss FD, Andreano E, Latz E, Schultze JL, Rappuoli R, Mantovani A, Mak TW, Melino G, Shi Y (2022)

Publication Type: Journal article, Review article

Publication year: 2022


DOI: 10.1038/s41418-022-01015-x


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic for more than 2 years and it still impacts our daily lifestyle and quality in unprecedented ways. A better understanding of immunity and its regulation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is urgently needed. Based on the current literature, we review here the various virus mutations and the evolving disease manifestations along with the alterations of immune responses with specific focuses on the innate immune response, neutrophil extracellular traps, humoral immunity, and cellular immunity. Different types of vaccines were compared and analyzed based on their unique properties to elicit specific immunity. Various therapeutic strategies such as antibody, anti-viral medications and inflammation control were discussed. We predict that with the available and continuously emerging new technologies, more powerful vaccines and administration schedules, more effective medications and better public health measures, the COVID-19 pandemic will be under control in the near future.

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Li, Q., Wang, Y., Sun, Q., Knopf, J., Herrmann, M., Lin, L.,... Shi, Y. (2022). Immune response in COVID-19: what is next? Cell Death and Differentiation.


Li, Qing, et al. "Immune response in COVID-19: what is next?" Cell Death and Differentiation (2022).

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