Flavor Enhancement in Daily Life of Patients with Olfactory Dysfunction

Koenighofer M, Niebauer V, Liu DT, Renner B, Besser G, Mueller CA (2021)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2021


DOI: 10.1007/s12078-021-09289-0


Introduction Patients with olfactory dysfunction report deterioration of taste due to loss of flavor, leading to less food enjoyment, alterations in dietary behaviors and stress. The aim of this study was to introduce flavor enhancement to investigate its acceptance and possible effects on quality of life. Methods In this prospective, controlled, randomized, single-blinded, cross-over pilot study, we recruited 30 olfactory dysfunction patients, of which 16 were hyposmic and 14 anosmic. After single-blinded triangle flavor discrimination test, flavor drops were randomized either in high or low concentration for 14 days and vice versa for another 14 days. Records included a daily diary and the questionnaire of olfactory disorders. Results Usage rates were excellent with 82.2% of all days, while drops were mainly used for breakfast (44.6%, p < 0.05). Hyposmics used flavor enhancement on significantly more days (median = 14) compared to anosmics (median = 11, p = 0.0094). QOD improved in 12 patients to a meaningful extent. Conclusions In this pilot study, we show that flavor enhancement is feasible accompanied by high compliance and acceptance in olfactory dysfunction patients. Flavor drops were used regardless of low or high concentrations with no adverse events noted. Implications Our findings give rise to further studies illuminating the possible advantages of flavor enhancement in patients with olfactory disorders.

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Koenighofer, M., Niebauer, V., Liu, D.T., Renner, B., Besser, G., & Mueller, C.A. (2021). Flavor Enhancement in Daily Life of Patients with Olfactory Dysfunction. Chemosensory Perception. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12078-021-09289-0


Koenighofer, Martin, et al. "Flavor Enhancement in Daily Life of Patients with Olfactory Dysfunction." Chemosensory Perception (2021).

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