Smart-Glass Guided Exposure for Anxiety Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Pittig A, Hoyer J, Noack R (2021)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2021


DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2020.12.003


Exposure is a highly effective treatment for pathological fear and anxiety, but rarely used in routine care. Issues of practicability and lack of therapists in rural areas are main barriers for the dissemination of exposure. Smartglass devices may enable therapists to guide exposure from their own office via real-time feedback and may thereby increase practicability. The present study explored the technological usability and clinical feasibility of Smartglass-guided exposure in a behavioral approach test in spider-fearful individuals (N = 40). Fearful individuals were asked to start the Smartglass themselves and established a connection to a therapist, who guided the exposure test from afar. Clinical severity of spider fear was assessed via questionnaire. Technological usability was assessed with established measures of usability, user experience, and user acceptance. Exploratory, individual characteristics of exposure were collected (e.g., within-session fear reduction, duration, safety behavior). Overall, fearful individuals (94.9%) and therapists (100%) were able to establish a connection. Usability of Smartglass-guided exposure was evaluated as positive. Within-session fear reduction was large (d = 1.91). Adverse events were minimal. There were, however, some associations between exposure characteristics and usability evaluation (e.g., lower user-friendliness and exposure duration). Two case examples further highlight chances and risks of Smartglass-guided exposure. These findings provide first evidence that Smartglass-guided exposure could be useful in exposure therapy. Smartglass-guided exposure may ultimately help to increase practicability of exposure and increase dissemination, also in rural areas. These findings are promising for future research on the long-term outcome of evidence-based exposure in treatment seeking patients.

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Pittig, A., Hoyer, J., & Noack, R. (2021). Smart-Glass Guided Exposure for Anxiety Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice.


Pittig, Andre, Jürgen Hoyer, and René Noack. "Smart-Glass Guided Exposure for Anxiety Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study." Cognitive and Behavioral Practice (2021).

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