Special Equipment for Ammonothermal Processes

Schlücker E, Hertweck B, Schimmel S, Wellmann P (2021)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Book chapter / Article in edited volumes

Publication year: 2021

Publisher: Springer, Cham

Edited Volumes: Ammonothermal Synthesis and Crystal Growth of Nitrides

Series: Springer Series in Materials Science

Book Volume: 304

Pages Range: 317-328

ISBN: 978-3-030-56305-9

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-56305-9_17


As the ammonothermal method often requires technically challenging conditions such as high temperature, high pressure and reaction media that are rather corrosive towards most metals (see Chap.  11), the further development of ammonothermal process equipment is of vital importance for tapping the full potential of the ammonothermal method. Suitable high-pressure/high-temperature autoclaves are therefore the basic requirement for a successful process. Ammonothermal syntheses are conventionally carried out in autoclaves, which do not allow monitoring of the physical and chemical processes during the experiments. Therefore, in situ measurement techniques at process conditions are crucial for obtaining a holistic understanding of ammonothermal processes. The following chapter presents optical cells for in situ monitoring enabling UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray imaging and X-ray diffraction as well as ultrasonic measurements. Additionally, special equipment like a rotatable feedthrough and a ceramic-crucible-based systems for minimization of corrosion and contamination are described.

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How to cite


Schlücker, E., Hertweck, B., Schimmel, S., & Wellmann, P. (2021). Special Equipment for Ammonothermal Processes. In Elke Meissner, Rainer Niewa (Eds.), Ammonothermal Synthesis and Crystal Growth of Nitrides. (pp. 317-328). Springer, Cham.


Schlücker, Eberhard, et al. "Special Equipment for Ammonothermal Processes." Ammonothermal Synthesis and Crystal Growth of Nitrides. Ed. Elke Meissner, Rainer Niewa, Springer, Cham, 2021. 317-328.

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