XDose: toward online cross-validation of experimental and computational X-ray dose estimation

Roser P, Birkhold A, Preuhs A, Ochs P, Stepina E, Strobel N, Kowarschik M, Fahrig R, Maier A (2020)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2020


DOI: 10.1007/s11548-020-02298-6


Purpose: As the spectrum of X-ray procedures has increased both for diagnostic and for interventional cases, more attention is paid to X-ray dose management. While the medical benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of radiation injuries in almost all cases, reproducible studies on organ dose values help to plan preventive measures helping both patient as well as staff. Dose studies are either carried out retrospectively, experimentally using anthropomorphic phantoms, or computationally. When performed experimentally, it is helpful to combine them with simulations validating the measurements. In this paper, we show how such a dose simulation method, carried out together with actual X-ray experiments, can be realized to obtain reliable organ dose values efficiently. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation technique was developed combining down-sampling and super-resolution techniques for accelerated processing accompanying X-ray dose measurements. The target volume is down-sampled using the statistical mode first. The estimated dose distribution is then up-sampled using guided filtering and the high-resolution target volume as guidance image. Second, we present a comparison of dose estimates calculated with our Monte Carlo code experimentally obtained values for an anthropomorphic phantom using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters. Results: We reconstructed high-resolution dose distributions from coarse ones (down-sampling factor 2 to 16) with error rates ranging from 1.62 % to 4.91 %. Using down-sampled target volumes further reduced the computation time by 30 % to 60 %. Comparison of measured results to simulated dose values demonstrated high agreement with an average percentage error of under 10 % for all measurement points. Conclusions: Our results indicate that Monte Carlo methods can be accelerated hardware-independently and still yield reliable results. This facilitates empirical dose studies that make use of online Monte Carlo simulations to easily cross-validate dose estimates on-site.

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Roser, P., Birkhold, A., Preuhs, A., Ochs, P., Stepina, E., Strobel, N.,... Maier, A. (2020). XDose: toward online cross-validation of experimental and computational X-ray dose estimation. International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-020-02298-6


Roser, Philipp, et al. "XDose: toward online cross-validation of experimental and computational X-ray dose estimation." International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (2020).

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