Low energy nano diffraction (LEND) – A versatile diffraction technique in SEM

Schweizer P, Denninger P, Dolle C, Spiecker E (2020)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2020


Book Volume: 213

Article Number: 112956

DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.112956


Electron diffraction is a powerful characterization method that is used across different fields and in different instruments. In particular, the power of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) largely relies on the capability to switch between imaging and diffraction mode enabling identification of crystalline phases and in-depth studies of crystal defects, to name only examples. In contrast, while diffraction techniques have found their way into the realm of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the form of electron backscatter diffraction and related techniques, on-axis transmission diffraction is still in its infancy. Here we present a simple but versatile setup that enables a ‘diffraction mode’ in SEM using a fluorescent screen and a dedicated in vacuo camera. With this setup spot-like nano-beam diffraction patterns of thin samples can be acquired with electron energies as low as 500 eV. We therefore coin the name Low Energy Nano Diffraction (LEND). Diffraction patterns can be recorded from single positions on the sample or integrated over selected areas by adjustable scan patterns. Besides showing the principal application of the technique to standard materials such as gold and silicon we also explore the application to graphene and other 2D materials. Besides single pattern measurements, also full 4D-STEM diffraction mappings are demonstrated. Finally, we show how the integration of a versatile diffraction mode in SEM enables a thorough analysis performed with a single instrument.

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Schweizer, P., Denninger, P., Dolle, C., & Spiecker, E. (2020). Low energy nano diffraction (LEND) – A versatile diffraction technique in SEM. Ultramicroscopy, 213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.112956


Schweizer, Peter, et al. "Low energy nano diffraction (LEND) – A versatile diffraction technique in SEM." Ultramicroscopy 213 (2020).

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