C-RAN with Hybrid RF/FSO Fronthaul Links: Joint Optimization of Fronthaul Compression and RF Time Allocation

Najafi M, Jamali V, Ng DWK, Schober R (2019)


Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2019

Journal

Book Volume: 67

Pages Range: 8678-8695

Article Number: 8830409

Journal Issue: 12

DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2019.2940183

Abstract

This paper considers the uplink of a cloud radio access network (C-RAN) comprised of several multi-antenna remote radio units (RUs) which compress the signals that they receive from multiple mobile users (MUs) and forward them to a CU via wireless fronthaul links. To enable reliable high rate fronthaul links, we employ a hybrid radio frequency (RF)/free space optical (FSO) system for fronthauling. Moreover, to strike a balance between complexity and performance, we consider three different quantization schemes at the RUs, namely per-antenna vector quantization (AVQ), per-RU vector quantization (RVQ), and distributed source coding (DSC), two different RF fronthaul transmission modes, namely orthogonal transmission and non-orthogonal transmission, and two different detectors at the CU, namely the linear minimum mean square error detector and the optimal successive interference cancellation detector. For this network architecture, we investigate the joint optimization of the quantization noise covariance matrices at the RUs and the RF time allocation to the multiple-access and fronthaul links for rate region maximization. To this end, we formulate a unified weighted sum rate maximization problem valid for each possible combination of the considered quantization, RF fronthaul transmission, and detection schemes. To handle the non-convexity of the unified problem, we transform it into a bi-convex problem which facilitates the derivation of an efficient suboptimal solution using alternating convex optimization and golden section search. Moreover, by introducing a backoff parameter to reduce the probability of infeasibility, we generalize the proposed optimization framework to account for imperfect channel estimation. Our simulation results show that for each combination of the considered quantization, RF fronthaul transmission, and detection schemes, C-RAN with hybrid RF/FSO fronthauling can achieve a considerable sum rate gain compared to conventional systems employing pure FSO fronthauling, especially under unfavorable atmospheric conditions. In addition, employing a more sophisticated quantization scheme can significantly improve the system performance under adverse atmospheric conditions. In contrast, in clear weather conditions, when the FSO link capacity is high, the simple AVQ scheme performs close to the optimal DSC scheme. Furthermore, our simulation results suggest that the proposed algorithm can be adapted to the quality of the channel estimates by tuning the backoff parameter.

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APA:

Najafi, M., Jamali, V., Ng, D.W.K., & Schober, R. (2019). C-RAN with Hybrid RF/FSO Fronthaul Links: Joint Optimization of Fronthaul Compression and RF Time Allocation. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 67(12), 8678-8695. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2019.2940183

MLA:

Najafi, Marzieh, et al. "C-RAN with Hybrid RF/FSO Fronthaul Links: Joint Optimization of Fronthaul Compression and RF Time Allocation." IEEE Transactions on Communications 67.12 (2019): 8678-8695.

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