Development and Validation of Social Motivation Questionnaire

Gong X, Seaman KL, Fung HH, Loeckenhoff C, Lang F (2019)

Publication Type: Journal article

Publication year: 2019


Book Volume: 59

Pages Range: e664-e673

Journal Issue: 6

DOI: 10.1093/geront/gny121


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information-seeking (IS) and emotion-regulatory (ER) motivation play meaningful roles in age-related changes in social interaction across adulthood. This study aimed to develop and validate the Social Motivation Questionnaire (SMQ) to assess these two types of motivation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten items were selected from a pool as the candidate items of SMQ and were administered to 480 German adults (20-91 years old) for validation. These items were also administered to 150 U.S. (18-40 years old) and 131 Hong Kong younger adults (18 to 26 years old) for cultural-invariance examination. RESULTS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that a two-factor, eight-item structure fits the German adults' data well with satisfactory reliability. Multigroup comparisons showed cross-age invariance among younger, middle-aged, and older German adults, as well as cross-cultural invariance among German, U.S., and Hong Kong younger adults. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: A new questionnaire, SMQ, was developed and validated to measure IS and ER social motivation across adulthood and across cultures.

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Gong, X., Seaman, K.L., Fung, H.H., Loeckenhoff, C., & Lang, F. (2019). Development and Validation of Social Motivation Questionnaire. Gerontologist, 59(6), e664-e673.


Gong, Xianmin, et al. "Development and Validation of Social Motivation Questionnaire." Gerontologist 59.6 (2019): e664-e673.

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