IP-Cores Watermarking Scheme at Behavioral Level Using Genetic Algorithms

Echavarria Gutiérrez JA, Morales-Reyes A, Cumplido R, Salido MÁ, Feregrino C (2019)

Publication Language: English

Publication Type: Journal article, Original article

Publication year: 2019



This paper proposes an improved scheme to watermark soft Intellectual Property (IP) Cores using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). For this purpose, a water-mark signature and an IP-Core behavioral description are translated into FiniteState Machines (FSMs).  Both FSMs are merged into one that contains the watermarked IP-Core preserving its original functionality without disruption. However, a key problem of the resulting FSM is dealing with not deeply embedded states that allow the watermark to be removed. In order to overcome this problem, an FSM reduction process is necessary. Both, FSMs merging and reduction are NP-complete problems that can be tackled via GAs. The proposed watermarking scheme shows a significant improvement in terms of reduction and watermark embedding strength.

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How to cite


Echavarria Gutiérrez, J.A., Morales-Reyes, A., Cumplido, R., Salido, M.Á., & Feregrino, C. (2019). IP-Cores Watermarking Scheme at Behavioral Level Using Genetic Algorithms. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence.


Echavarria Gutiérrez, Jorge Alfonso, et al. "IP-Cores Watermarking Scheme at Behavioral Level Using Genetic Algorithms." Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence (2019).

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