Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: Optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology

Velis CA, Franco-Salinas C, O'Sullivan C, Najorka J, Boccaccini AR, Cheeseman CR (2014)


Publication Status: Published

Publication Type: Journal article, Original article

Publication year: 2014

Journal

Book Volume: 48

Pages Range: 7527-7535

Journal Issue: 13

DOI: 10.1021/es5003499

Abstract

Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/w; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/w); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm; target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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APA:

Velis, C.A., Franco-Salinas, C., O'Sullivan, C., Najorka, J., Boccaccini, A.R., & Cheeseman, C.R. (2014). Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: Optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(13), 7527-7535. https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es5003499

MLA:

Velis, Costas A., et al. "Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: Optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology." Environmental Science & Technology 48.13 (2014): 7527-7535.

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