Journal article

In-group favoritism and discrimination among multiple out-groups

Publication Details
Author(s): Grimm V, Utikal V, Valmasoni L
Publication year: 2017
Title of series: mimeo
ISSN: 0167-2681


In this study, we investigate how and why people discriminate among different groups, including their in-group and multiple out-groups. In a laboratory experiment, we use dictator games for five groups to compare actual transfers to in-group and out-group agents with the respective beliefs held by dictators and recipients in these groups. We observe both in-group favoritism and discrimination across multiple out-groups. Individuals expect others to be in-group biased, as well as to be treated differently by different out-groups. We find that dictators’ in-group favoritism is positively related to the degree of in-group favoritism they expect other dictators to exhibit. Moreover, we find that a dictator tends to be relatively more generous toward a specific out-group when he or she expects that dictators belonging to that out-group are generous toward members of his or her in-group. Thus, our study provides evidence for indirect reciprocation expectation.

How to cite
APA: Grimm, V., Utikal, V., & Valmasoni, L. (2017). In-group favoritism and discrimination among multiple out-groups. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization.

MLA: Grimm, Veronika, Verena Utikal, and Lorenzo Valmasoni. "In-group favoritism and discrimination among multiple out-groups." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2017).

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