Journal article
(Review article)

Glycation products in infant formulas: chemical, analytical and physiological properties

Publication Details
Author(s): Pischetsrieder M, Henle T
Journal: Amino Acids
Publisher: Springer Verlag (Germany)
Publication year: 2012
Volume: 42
Pages range: 1111-1118
ISSN: 0939-4451


Infant formulas are milk-based products, which are adapted to the composition of human milk. To ensure microbiological safety and long shelf life, infant formulas usually undergo rigid heat treatment. As a consequence of the special composition and the heat regimen, infant formulas
are more prone to thermally induced degradation reactions than regular milk products. Degradation reactions observed during milk processing comprise lactosylation yielding the Amadori product lactulosyllysine, the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and
protein-free sugar degradation products, as well as protein or lipid oxidation. Several methods have been developed to estimate the heat impact applied during the manufacturing of infant formulas, including indirect methods such as fluorescence analysis as well as the analysis of defined reaction products. Most studies confirm a higher degree of damage in infant formulas compared to regular milk products. Differences between various types of infant formulas, such as liquid, powdered or hypoallergenic formulas depend on the analyzed markers and brands. A considerable portion of protein degradation products in infant formulas can be avoided when process parameters and the quality of the ingredients are carefully controlled. The nutritional consequences of thermal degradation products in infant formulas are largely unknown.

How to cite
APA: Pischetsrieder, M., & Henle, T. (2012). Glycation products in infant formulas: chemical, analytical and physiological properties. Amino Acids, 42, 1111-1118.

MLA: Pischetsrieder, Monika, and Thomas Henle. "Glycation products in infant formulas: chemical, analytical and physiological properties." Amino Acids 42 (2012): 1111-1118.

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