Journal article
(Original article)

Referential competence is associated with motivational congruence

Publication Details
Author(s): Schultheiss O, Patalakh M, Rawolle M, Liening SH, MacInnes JJ
Publisher: Elsevier
Publication year: 2011
Volume: 45
Journal issue: 1
Pages range: 59-70
ISSN: 0092-6566
Language: English


hypothesized that referential competence (RC) – stable individual differences in the ability to quickly name nonverbally represented information – should predict congruence between implicit and explicit motives. We tested this hypothesis using a color-naming task to assess RC, picture-story measures of implicit motives, and self-report measures of participants’ motivational values and goals. Study 1 showed that the RC measure captures a stable individual difference by test–retest and internal consistency criteria. Studies 2 and 3 provided correlational evidence for the hypothesized association between RC and measures of between- and within-individual motivational congruence. Study 4 showed that in the absence of situationally induced referential processing, RC predicts preferences for motive-congruent goals.

Focus Area of Individual Faculties

How to cite
APA: Schultheiss, O., Patalakh, M., Rawolle, M., Liening, S.H., & MacInnes, J.J. (2011). Referential competence is associated with motivational congruence. Journal of research in personality, 45(1), 59-70.

MLA: Schultheiss, Oliver, et al. "Referential competence is associated with motivational congruence." Journal of research in personality 45.1 (2011): 59-70.

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