Step training improves reaction time, gait and balance and reduces falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Beitrag in einer Fachzeitschrift


Details zur Publikation

Autorinnen und Autoren: Okubo Y, Schöne D, Lord SR
Zeitschrift: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jahr der Veröffentlichung: 2017
Band: 51
Heftnummer: 7
Seitenbereich: 586-593
ISSN: 0306-3674


Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of stepping interventions on fall risk factors and fall incidence in older people.
DATA SOURCE: Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, CENTRAL) and reference lists of included articles from inception to March 2015.
STUDY SELECTION: Randomised (RCT) or clinical controlled trials (CCT) of volitional and reactive stepping interventions that included older (minimum age 60) people providing data on falls or fall risk factors.
RESULTS: Meta-analyses of seven RCTs (n=660) showed that the stepping interventions significantly reduced the rate of falls (rate ratio=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65, p<0.0001, I2=0%) and the proportion of fallers (risk ratio=0.51, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.68, p<0.0001, I2=0%). Subgroup analyses stratified by reactive and volitional stepping interventions revealed a similar efficacy for rate of falls and proportion of fallers. A meta-analysis of two RCTs (n=62) showed that stepping interventions significantly reduced laboratory-induced falls, and meta-analysis findings of up to five RCTs and CCTs (n=36-416) revealed that stepping interventions significantly improved simple and choice stepping reaction time, single leg stance, timed up and go performance (p<0.05), but not measures of strength.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that both reactive and volitional stepping interventions reduce falls among older adults by approximately 50%. This clinically significant reduction may be due to improvements in reaction time, gait, balance and balance recovery but not in strength. Further high-quality studies aimed at maximising the effectiveness and feasibility of stepping interventions are required.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015017357.


FAU-Autorinnen und Autoren / FAU-Herausgeberinnen und Herausgeber

Schöne, Daniel
Lehrstuhl für Innere Medizin (Geriatrie)


Einrichtungen weiterer Autorinnen und Autoren

University of New South Wales (UNSW)


Zitierweisen

APA:
Okubo, Y., Schöne, D., & Lord, S.R. (2017). Step training improves reaction time, gait and balance and reduces falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(7), 586-593. https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095452

MLA:
Okubo, Yoshiro, Daniel Schöne, and Stephen R. Lord. "Step training improves reaction time, gait and balance and reduces falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis." British Journal of Sports Medicine 51.7 (2017): 586-593.

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Zuletzt aktualisiert 2019-02-03 um 10:10