Bed II Sequence Stratigraphic context of EF-HR and HWK EE archaeological sites, and the Oldowan/Acheulean succession at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

Journal article
(Original article)


Publication Details

Author(s): Stanistreet IG, McHenry LJ, Stollhofen H, de la Torre I
Journal: Journal of Human Evolution
Publisher: Academic Press
Publication year: 2018
ISSN: 0047-2484
Language: English


Abstract

Archaeological excavations at EF-HR and HWK EE allow reassessment of Bed
II stratigraphy within the Junction Area and eastern Olduvai Gorge.
Application of Sequence Stratigraphic methods provides a
time-stratigraphic framework enabling correlation of sedimentary units
across facies boundaries, applicable even in those areas where
conventional timelines, such as tephrostratigraphic markers, are absent,
eroded, or reworked. Sequence Stratigraphically, Bed II subdivides into
five major Sequences 1 to 5, all floored by major disconformities that
incise deeply into the underlying succession, proving that simple "layer
cake" stratigraphy is inappropriate. Previous establishment of the
Lemuta Member has invalidated the use of Tuff IIA as the boundary
between Lower and Middle Bed II, now redefined at the disconformity
between Sequences 2 and 3, a lithostratigraphic contact underlying the
succession containing the Lower, Middle, and Upper Augitic Sandstones.
HWK EE site records Oldowan technology in the Lower Augitic Sandstone at
the base of Sequence 3, within Middle Bed II. We suggest placement of
recently reported Acheulean levels at FLK W within the Middle Augitic
Sandstone, thus emphasizing that handaxes are yet to be found in earlier
stratigraphic units of the Olduvai sequence. This would place a
boundary between the Oldowan and Acheulean technologies at Olduvai in
the Tuff IIB zone or earliest Middle Augitic Sandstone. A major
disconformity between Sequences 3 and 4 at and near EF-HR cuts through
the level of Tuff IIC, placing the main Acheulean EF-HR assemblage at
the base of Sequence 4, within Upper rather than Middle Bed II. Sequence
stratigraphic methods also yield a more highly resolved Bed II
stratigraphic framework. Backwall and sidewall surveying of
archaeological trenches at EF-HR and HWK EE permits definition of
“Lake-parasequences” nested within the major Sequences that record
downcutting of disconformities associated with lake regression, then
sedimentation associated with lake transgression, capped finally by
another erosional disconformity or hiatal paraconformity caused by the
next lake withdrawal. On a relative time-scale rather than a vertical
metre scale, the resulting Wheeler diagram framework provides a basis
for recognizing time-equivalent depositional episodes and the position
of time gaps at various scales. Relative timing of archaeological
assemblage levels can then be differentiated at a millennial scale
within this framework.


FAU Authors / FAU Editors

Stollhofen, Harald Prof. Dr.
Lehrstuhl für Geologie (Exogene Dynamik)


External institutions
The University of Liverpool
University College London (UCL) (University of London)
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee


How to cite

APA:
Stanistreet, I.G., McHenry, L.J., Stollhofen, H., & de la Torre, I. (2018). Bed II Sequence Stratigraphic context of EF-HR and HWK EE archaeological sites, and the Oldowan/Acheulean succession at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.01.005

MLA:
Stanistreet, Ian G., et al. "Bed II Sequence Stratigraphic context of EF-HR and HWK EE archaeological sites, and the Oldowan/Acheulean succession at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania." Journal of Human Evolution (2018).

BibTeX: 

Last updated on 2018-29-09 at 14:50