Shell succession, assemblage and species dependent effects on the C/O-isotopic composition of brachiopods - Examples from the Silurian of Gotland

Beitrag in einer Fachzeitschrift
(Originalarbeit)


Details zur Publikation

Autorinnen und Autoren: Samtleben C, Munnecke A, Bickert T, Pätzold J
Zeitschrift: Chemical Geology
Verlag: Elsevier
Jahr der Veröffentlichung: 2001
Band: 175
Seitenbereich: 61-107
ISSN: 0009-2541


Abstract


Brachiopods are the most widely used biological constituents for the determination of stable C- and O-isotopic compositions in Paleozoic sediments. In the present study, critical precautions for obtaining reliable isotope values and maximum possible reliability are discussed. Samples were taken in the tectonically undisturbed and exceptionally well-preserved Silurian sequence on Gotland (Sweden). The state of preservation of brachiopod shells was examined by cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and by comparison of shell ultrastructures with those of recent brachiopods. Nine types of ultrastructure are distinguished and attributed either to biological differences or to diagenetic alterations. For isotope analyses, only largely unaltered areas of the secondary, fibrous shell layer should be used. Shell layers with other types of ultrastructure (primary, tertiary, laminar) may have isotopic compositions different from the assumed seawater value even when diagenetically unaltered. Only brachiopod taxa with a shell succession that includes a sufficiently thick secondary shell layer (e.g., Spiriferida, Rhynchonellida, Orthida) give reliable, mutually corresponding isotope values, indicating that the shell calcite precipitated at or near equilibrium with ambient seawater. Brachiopods with other kinds of shell successions (Strophomenida, Pentamerida) as well as other calcite-shelled organisms (trilobites, ostracodes) give non-equilibrium isotopic results and therefore should not be used. By restricting the samples to one species or to a group of closely related species, even minor differences in primary isotopic composition can be excluded. In the Silurian of Gotland, the stratigraphically widely distributed spiriferid Atrypa reticularis was selected for study. Considering the type of record, four different taphonomic assemblages are defined. In autochthonous assemblages of specimens, which lived contemporarily, original values of carbon as well as oxygen isotopes can be evaluated with a reliability of < ± 0.4‰. This allows the recognition of minor, hydrographically produced differences between neighbouring, contemporary facies areas and the determination of small (< 1‰) isotopic excursions. Thus, besides being indicators of hydrographic conditions in ancient oceans, stable carbon- and oxygen-isotope compositions can be used as a stratigraphic tool that provides correlations, sometimes even within biozones. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.



FAU-Autorinnen und Autoren / FAU-Herausgeberinnen und Herausgeber

Munnecke, Axel Prof. Dr.
Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät


Einrichtungen weiterer Autorinnen und Autoren

Hochschule Bremen
Universität Bremen


Zitierweisen

APA:
Samtleben, C., Munnecke, A., Bickert, T., & Pätzold, J. (2001). Shell succession, assemblage and species dependent effects on the C/O-isotopic composition of brachiopods - Examples from the Silurian of Gotland. Chemical Geology, 175, 61-107. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(00)00364-8

MLA:
Samtleben, Christian, et al. "Shell succession, assemblage and species dependent effects on the C/O-isotopic composition of brachiopods - Examples from the Silurian of Gotland." Chemical Geology 175 (2001): 61-107.

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