Development and validation of a food-associated olfactory test (FAOT)

Journal article
(Original article)

Publication Details

Author(s): Denzer-Lippmann M, Beauchamp J, Freiherr J, Thürauf N, Kornhuber J, Büttner A
Journal: Chemical Senses
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B - Oxford Open Option B
Publication year: 2017
Volume: 42
Journal issue: 1
Pages range: 47-57
ISSN: 0379-864X


Olfactory tests are an important tool in human nutritional research for studying food preferences, yet comprehensive tests dedicated solely to food odors are currently lacking. Therefore, within this study, an innovative food-associated olfactory test (FAOT) system was developed. The FAOT comprises 16 odorant pens that contain representative food odors relating to different macronutrient classes. The test underwent a sensory validation based on identification rate, intensity, hedonic value, and food association scores. The accuracy of the test was further compared to the accuracy of the established Sniffin’ Sticks identification test. The identification rates and intensities of this new FAOT were found to be comparable to the Sniffin’ Sticks olfactory identification test. The odorant pens were also assessed chemo-analytically and were found to be chemically stable for at least 24 weeks. Overall, this new identification test for use in assessing olfaction in a food-associated context is valid both in terms of its use in sensory perception studies and its chemical stability. The FOAT is particularly suited to examinations of the sense of smell regarding food odors.

FAU Authors / FAU Editors

Büttner, Andrea Prof. Dr.
Lehrstuhl für Aroma- und Geruchsforschung
Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie
Lehrstuhl für Aroma- und Geruchsforschung
Kornhuber, Johannes Prof. Dr. med.
Lehrstuhl für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Thürauf, Norbert Prof. Dr.
Medizinische Fakultät

Additional Organisation
Emil-Fischer-Zentrum (Emil Fischer Center)

External institutions with authors

Fraunhofer-Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV)

How to cite

Denzer-Lippmann, M., Beauchamp, J., Freiherr, J., Thürauf, N., Kornhuber, J., & Büttner, A. (2017). Development and validation of a food-associated olfactory test (FAOT). Chemical Senses, 42(1), 47-57.

Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie, et al. "Development and validation of a food-associated olfactory test (FAOT)." Chemical Senses 42.1 (2017): 47-57.


Last updated on 2019-09-08 at 10:56