Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in the air and dust in German daycare centers and human biomonitoring in visiting children (LUPE 3)

Beitrag in einer Fachzeitschrift


Details zur Publikation

Autorinnen und Autoren: Fromme H, Lahrz T, Kraft M, Fembacher L, Mach C, Dietrich S, Burkardt R, Voelkel W, Göen T
Zeitschrift: Environment International
Verlag: Elsevier
Jahr der Veröffentlichung: 2014
Band: 71
Seitenbereich: 158-63
ISSN: 0160-4120


Abstract


Organophosphate (OP) flame retardants and plasticizers are chemicals that have been used in large quantities in diverse consumer and building-related products for decades. In the present study, OPs were measured in paired indoor air and dust samples from 63 daycare centers in Germany. Moreover, the urine of 312 children between 22 and 80 months old who attend these facilities was analyzed for the presence of eight OP metabolites. Tri-(2-butoxyethyl)-phosphate (TBEP), tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TnBP) were present in low concentrations in indoor air, with median values of 49 ng/m(3), 2.7 ng/m(3), and 2.2 ng/m(3), respectively. In dust, median values of 225 mg/kg for TBEP, 2.7 mg/kg for TCPP, 1.1mg/kg for diphenyl(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, and 0.5mg/kg for tri-phenyl-phosphate (TPhP) were found. In the urine samples, the metabolites di-phenyl-phosphate, di-n-butyl-phosphate, and di-(2-butoxyethyl)-phosphate had median values (95th percentiles) of 0.8 ?g/l (4.0 ?g/l), 0.2 ?g/l (0.9 ?g/l), and 2.0 ?g/l (10.7 ?g/l), respectively. A significant correlation was found between the dust and air samples in the levels of TnBP, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and TBEP. For TCEP and TBEP, significant correlations were also observed between the levels in dust and the respective metabolite levels in urine. For TCEP, there was also a significant correlation between the concentration in indoor air and metabolite levels in urine. Based on the 95th percentile in dust and air in our study and data from residences in a previously published study, the daily intake of the most abundant OP (TBEP) is high (i.e., 3.2 ?g/kg b.w.). This level is approximately 6.4% of the reference dose (RfD) established by the NSF, U.S.A. Overall, our study shows that daycare centers are indoor environments that contribute to OP exposure.



FAU-Autorinnen und Autoren / FAU-Herausgeberinnen und Herausgeber

Göen, Thomas Prof. Dr.
Medizinische Fakultät


Einrichtungen weiterer Autorinnen und Autoren

Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit (LGL)
Landesamt für Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen (LANUV)
Landeslabor Berlin-Brandenburg


Zitierweisen

APA:
Fromme, H., Lahrz, T., Kraft, M., Fembacher, L., Mach, C., Dietrich, S.,... Göen, T. (2014). Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in the air and dust in German daycare centers and human biomonitoring in visiting children (LUPE 3). Environment International, 71, 158-63. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.06.016

MLA:
Fromme, H., et al. "Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in the air and dust in German daycare centers and human biomonitoring in visiting children (LUPE 3)." Environment International 71 (2014): 158-63.

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Zuletzt aktualisiert 2018-05-10 um 02:29