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@article{faucris.296108059,
abstract = {The optimal energy signal design for wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs) enabling energy-sustainable communication for a large number of low-power devices is still an open problem in practical systems. In this work, we study a multi-user WPCN, where a multi-antenna base station (BS) sends an energy signal to multiple single-antenna users, which, in turn, harvest energy from the received signal and utilize it for information transmission in the uplink. In contrast to the existing works on multiple-input single-output (MISO) WPCN design, in this paper, we jointly optimize the energy signal waveform and downlink beamforming at the BS for energy harvesting (EH) devices described by non-linear circuit-based models. To this end, we assume that the BS broadcasts a pulse-modulated signal employing multiple energy signal vectors and we formulate an optimization problem for the joint design of the downlink transmit energy signal vectors, their number, the durations of the transmit pulses, and the time allocation policy for minimization of the average transmit power at the BS. We show that for single-user WPCNs, a single energy signal vector, which is collinear with the maximum ratio transmission (MRT) vector and drives the EH circuit at the user device into saturation, is optimal. Next, for the general multi-user case, we show that the optimal signal design requires a maximum number of energy signal vectors that exceeds the number of users by one and propose an algorithm to obtain the optimal energy signal vectors. Since the complexity of the optimal design is high, we also propose two suboptimal schemes for WPCN design. First, for asymptotic massive WPCNs, where the ratio of the number of users to the number of BS antennas, i.e., the system load, tends to zero, we show that the optimal downlink transmit signal can be obtained in closed-form and comprises a sequence of weighted sums of MRT vectors. Next, based on this result, for general WPCNs with finite system loads, we propose a suboptimal closed-form MRT-based design and a suboptimal semidefinite relaxation (SDR)-based scheme. Our simulation results reveal that the proposed optimal scheme and suboptimal SDR-based design achieve nearly identical performance and outperform two baseline schemes, which are based on linear and sigmoidal EH models. Furthermore, we show that, if the system load of the WPCN is low, the performance gap between the proposed suboptimal solutions is small and becomes negligible as the number of BS antennas tends to infinity.},
author = {Shanin, Nikita and Hagelauer, Amelie and Cottatellucci, Laura and Schober, Robert},
doi = {10.1109/TCOMM.2023.3257379},
faupublication = {yes},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Communications},
keywords = {Downlink; Integrated circuit modeling; MISO communication; Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO); Non-linear energy harvesting; Radio frequency; Signal design; Signal design; Uplink; Wireless communication; Wireless powered communication},
note = {CRIS-Team Scopus Importer:2023-04-14},
pages = {1-1},
peerreviewed = {Yes},
title = {{Optimal} {Energy} {Signal} {Design} for {Multi}-user {MISO} {WPCNs} with {Non}-linear {Energy} {Harvesting} {Circuits}},
year = {2023}
}